Paris Agreement Synopsis
Kyoto Protocol, 2005. The Kyoto Protocol [PDF], adopted in 1997 and entered into force in 2005, was the first legally binding climate agreement. It required developed countries to reduce their emissions by an average of 5 per cent compared to 1990 levels and to set up a system to monitor countries` progress. But the treaty did not force developing countries, including major carbon emitters China and India, to act. The United States signed the agreement in 1998, but never ratified it and then withdrew its signature. In the context of this debate, important climate agreements have developed in the way they aim to reduce emissions. The Kyoto Protocol only committed developed countries to reducing their emissions, while the Paris Agreement recognized climate change as a common problem and called on all countries to set emission targets. The agreement requires rich countries to meet a funding commitment of $100 billion per year beyond 2020 and use that number as a “lower limit” for additional support agreed until 2025. From 30 November to 11 December 2015, France hosted representatives from 196 countries at the United Nations Climate Change Conference, one of the largest and most ambitious global climate meetings ever held. The goal was nothing less than a binding, universal agreement that would limit greenhouse gas emissions to levels that would prevent global temperatures from rising more than 2°C (3.6°F) above the temperature scale set before the start of the Industrial Revolution. As a contribution to the objectives of the agreement, countries have submitted comprehensive national climate protection plans (nationally defined contributions, NDCs). These are not yet sufficient to meet the agreed temperature targets, but the agreement points the way for further action. The authors of the agreement have incorporated a timetable for withdrawal that President Trump must follow – to prevent it from irreparably harming our climate.
It is rare that there is consensus among almost all nations on a single issue. But with the Paris Agreement, world leaders agreed that climate change is driven by human behavior, that it poses a threat to the environment and all of humanity, and that global action is needed to stop it. It also created a clear framework for all countries to make emission reduction commitments and strengthen these measures over time. Here are some key reasons why the agreement is so important: Recognizing that many developing countries and small island states that have contributed the least to climate change could suffer the most from its consequences, the Paris Agreement includes a plan for developed countries – and others ” that are “able to do so” – to continue providing financial resources. help developing countries mitigate climate change and increase their resilience. The agreement builds on financial commitments from the 2009 Copenhagen Accord, which aimed to increase public and private climate finance for developing countries to $100 billion a year by 2020. (To put this in perspective, global military spending in 2017 alone amounted to about $1.7 trillion, more than a third of which came from the United States.) The Copenhagen Pact also created the Green Climate Fund to support the mobilisation of transformation finance with targeted public funds. The Paris Agreement established hope that the world would set a higher annual target by 2025 to build on the $100 billion target for 2020 and put in place mechanisms to achieve that scale. Although the United States and Turkey are not party to the agreement because they have not declared their intention to withdraw from the 1992 UNFCCC, as Annex 1 countries of the UNFCCC, they will continue to be required to produce national communications and an annual greenhouse gas inventory.  Adaptation issues were more at the heart of the work on the Paris Agreement.
Collective long-term adaptation objectives are included in the agreement and countries must report on their adaptation measures, making adaptation a parallel element of the mitigation agreement.  Adaptation objectives focus on improving adaptive capacity, increasing resilience and limiting vulnerability.  The Paris Agreement is a historic environmental agreement adopted by almost all countries in 2015 to combat climate change and its negative impacts. The agreement aims to significantly reduce global greenhouse gas emissions in order to limit the increase in global temperature this century to 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels, while looking for ways to limit the increase to 1.5 degrees. The agreement contains commitments from all major emitting countries to reduce their pollution from climate change and to strengthen these commitments over time. The Compact provides a means for developed countries to support developing countries in their mitigation and adaptation efforts, and provides a framework for transparent monitoring, reporting and tightening of countries` individual and collective climate goals. Ultimately, all parties have acknowledged the need to “avoid, minimize and treat loss and damage,” but in particular, any mention of indemnification or liability is excluded.  The Convention also adopts the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage, an institution that will seek to answer questions on the classification, treatment and co-responsibility of losses.  The United States, the world`s second-largest emitter, is the only country to withdraw from the deal, an initiative of President Donald J. .